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Гость 109 15th Nov, 2019

                                           
                         1st ICBM - USSR
1st Artificial satellite USSR
1st Signals from space - USSR
1st animals in space - USSR
1st reach of escape velocity - USSR
1st detection of solar wind - USSR
1st artificial satellite of Moon - USSR
1st Moon probe - USSR
1st extraterrestrial rover - USSR
1st Moon rover - USSR
1st heliocentric satellite - USSR
1st safe return of animal from space - USSR
1st MAN IN SPACE - USSR
1st crewed spaceflight - USSR
1st WOMAN IN SPACE - USSR
1st SPACEWALK - USSR
1st spacestation - USSR
1st artificial satellite of Venus

More facts for ya:
Total number of launches Russia 3204, US 1597, rest of the world 623
Total tonnage launched: Russia 987408t (!), US 589441t, rest of the world 200687t
Percentage of failures: Russia 5%, US 8,3%, rest of the world 6,4%
Dead spacemen: Russia 5, US 22

Even more facts
Space launches 1981-1991 USSR 1003, US 192
Manhours of work in space in space 1981-1991 USSR 149424, US 35160

Now about probes and telescopes:
1) Relikt-1
2) Prognoz-9
3) RadioAstron
4) Kvant-1 
5) Granat-1
6) Gamma-400
7) Gamma-1
8) Disk-1
9) Pulsar X-2
10) Astron
11) Koronas-Foton
12) Koronas-F
13) Koronas-I
14) Integral
15) Filin
Others:
16) Sputnik 2, first animal and lab in space, discovery of radiation belt
17) Sputnik-3 
18) Luna-1 first to reach escape velocity, first to register external radiation belt, first to detect solar wind, first
artificial comet, first artificial satellite of Sun.
19) Luna-2 first to reach surface of the Moon, first pennant of human nation on extraterrestrial body, first direct 

instrumental study of the Moon 
20) Luna-3 first gravitational manuver, first pictures of the Moon from space, first pictures of the dark side of the Moon, 
21) Sputnik-5, first to return living animals from space to Earth.
22) Venera-1 first to fly by Venus, first mission to other planet.
23) Vostok-1 First spaceship, first man in space, first man to return from space, first orbital manuver of manned spaceship.
24) Vostok-2 first study of weightlessness, firt study of sleep in space, fist over 24h spaceflight.
25) Vostok-3 first manned group flight, first video broadcasting from spaceship in orbit, first live TV broadcasting from 

orbit
25) Vostok-4 first communication between spaceships (Vostok-3), first ever simultaneous flight of multiple manned 

spaceships, first interception manuvers in orbit, first ever visual contact of spasceships in orbit
26) Mars-1 first ever artificial object to be sent to Mars, first artificial body to enter meteor streams
27) Kosmos-14 first gyroscopic orientation system
28) Vostok-5 the longest single man spaceflight.
29) Vostok-6 first woman in space, first female spacesuit in action, first orbital talks between man and woman
30) Polyot-1 first satellite killer
31) Voskhod-1 first spaceship with crew of 3, first spaceflight without spacesuits.
32) Kosmos-26 and Kosmos-49 first ever dedicated and global study of magnitosphere from space.
33) Zond-2 first plasma engines in space
34) Kosmos-54 first RITEG in space
35) Voskhod-2 first spacewalk
36) Molniya first ever nationwide TV broadcasting system (Orbita, broadcasted Kennedy funnersals live in USSR)
37) Erkan first ever DBSTV system
38) Zond-3 first celestial navigation in space, first HQ pictures of Moon`s dark side
39) Venera-3 first man made object to reach the surface of another planet
40) Luna-9 first soft landing on the Moon, first pictures from Moon surface, first panoramic pictures of Moon landscape, 

first communication from Moon, first direct instrumental study of Moon surface
41) Luna-10 first satellite of the Moon
42) Luna-12 discovery X-ray emission from Moon surface
43) Luna-13 first ever drilling of the Moon
44) Kosmos-142 confirmed possibility of L-band communication through ionosphere
45) Kosmos-145 confirmed functionality of quantium frequency standards in space
46) Kosmos-192 started first ever satellite NavComm system (Cyclone)
47) Venera-4 first ever direct study of athmosphere of Venus
48) Kosmos-186/188 first ever automatic docking in space, first ever automatic undocking in space
49) Zond-6 first ever HQ color pictures of Moon and Earth from Moon`s orbit
50) Sfera first ever global network of geodesic satellites (18 units)
51) Soyuz 4 and 5 first ever docking/undocking of manned spaceships, first experimental space station.
52) Luna-16 first and only samples of Moon delivered to Earth.
53) Soyuz-6, 7 and 8 first triple spacehip flight, first wielding in space, first wielding in open space
54) Kosmos-321 first measurement of equatorial electric stream
55) Venera-7 first soft landing on Venus, first comm transmission from Venus surface, first measurement of temp and pressure 

at Venus`s surface
56) Lunokhod-1 first ever extraterrestrial rover, first rover on the Moon
57) Salut-1 first space station, first long term space station
58) Soyuz-10 first docking to a space station
59) Mars-2 first man made object to reach Mars surface, first heavy vehicle sent to Mars, 
60) Mars-3 first soft landing on Mars, first comm from Mars surface
61) Kosmos-428 X-ray observatory
62) Kosmos-208 orbital gamma telescope
63) Kosmos-251 another orbital gamma telescope, discovery of gamma flashes in radiogalaxy 3C120
64) Kosmos-264 more orbital gamma telescopes
65) Kosmos-461 orbital gamma telescope and meteor stream observatory
66) Interkosmos-1 Solar observatory, discovered polarisation of X-ray radiation from Sun flashes
67) Interkosmos-4 Solar observatory
68) Interkosmos-7 Solar observatory
69) Interkosmos-11 Solar observatory
70) Interkosmos-16 Solar observatory
71) Interkosmos-3 Solar observatory
72) Interkosmos-5 Solar observatory
73) Interkosmos-10 Solar observatory
74) Interkosmos-12 Solar observatory
75) Interkosmos-13 Solar observatory
76) Interkosmos-14 Solar observatory
77) Interkosmos-Kopernik-500 Solar observatory
78) Interkosmos-8 Solar observatory
79) Interkosmos-2 Solar observatory
80) Interkosmos-6 Solar observatory
81) Interkosmos-15 Solar observatory
82) Luna-20 delivered more of Moon samples
83) Venera-8 yet another soft landing on Venus, first ever specral analysis of Venus surface materials
84) Kosmos-521 first armoured satellite, first dedicated satellite-target
85) Lunokhod-2 another Moon rover, moved over 42km, first automobile sold on the Moon
86) Kosmos-573 first transport spaceship
87) Mars-5 another Mars orbital observatory
88) Mars-6 first atmospheric probe
89) Soyuz-13 (Orion-2) manned orbital UV telescope
90) Космос-656 tests of superconductivity and high power magnetic fields aside of main mission
91) Luna-22 lunar orbital probe to study gravity and geology of the Moon
92) Salut-3 first orbital battlestation (armed with 23mm autocannon)
93) Salut-4 had two X-ray telescopes, Filin and RT-4, had 1 optic spectre telescope OST-1, plus IR telescope ITS-P four 

telescopes total
94) Soyuz 17 first repairs of telescope in space
95) Aryabhata first Indian space telescope and first Indian satellite
96) Venera-9 first tandem flight to Venus, first pictures from surface of Venus, first artificial satellites of Venus. 

Possible detection of extraterrestrial lifeform
97) Venera-10 first tandem flight to Venus, first pictures from surface of Venus, first artificial satellites of Venus
98) Soyuz-19 first international spaceship docking (Apollo)
99) Soyuz-20 first automatic resupply of spacestation.?
100) Salut-5 second space battlestation, this time with SS missiles (space-space)
101) Luna-24 another Moon probe, discovery of water on the Moon, drilling and delivery of 160cm core sample to Earth
102) Soyuz-22 first use of space multispectral camera
103) Kosmos-843 satellite killer
104) Kosmos 856 gamma and X-ray telescope
105) Kosmos-886 satellite killer
106) Kosmos-914 gamma and X-ray telescope
107) Salut-6 first space station with two docking ports, laboratory and first ever space radiotelescope (KRT-
108) Soyuz-26 first ever exchange of crews between spaceships in orbit (Soyuz-27)
109) Soyuz-27 first ever dual docking to space station by manned spaceships
110) Soyuz-28 first international spaceship crew
111) Soyuz-30 second international spaceship crew
112) v-31 third internationa spaceship crew
113) Venera-11 gamma telescope
114) Venera-12 gamma telescope, surveyed C/1979Y1 comet with UV spectrometer
115) Soyuz-33 fourtth international spaceship crew
116) Soyuz-34 first spaceship to be sent empty as replacement for faulty spaceship (Soyuz-32)
117) Soyuz-36 fifth international spaceship crew
118) Soyuz-37 sixth international spaceship crew
119) Soyuz-38 seventh international spaceship crew
120) Soyuz-39 eighth international spaceship crew
121) Soyuz-40 nineth international spaceship crew
122) Venera-13 set of 14 internationaly made scientific instruments, lander delivered color panoramic pictures of Venus, first ever chemical probe of Venus surface, first ever recorded sounds of Venus
123) Venera-14 same as Venera-13 plus first ever drilling of Venus
124) Salut-7 first to have Orlan spacesuits in inventory, best spacesuits ever known to date, deployed first ever microsatellites, had two X-ray and gamma telescopes, 1 electron telescope
125) Kosmos-1383 started Cospas-Sarsat system, first and only international orbital search and rescue system
126) Venera-15 first radar to scan Venus, first detailed mapping of Venus
127) Venera-16 same as Venera-15
128) Kosmos-1413 start of GLONASS system
129) Kosmos-1543 Earth magnetosphere probe first to discover primary particles with energy over ^10-12eV
130) Kosmos-1713 same as 1543
131) Soyuz T-11 first Indian spacemen
132) Vega-1 set of 21 international scientific instruments, first ever aerostatic probe of Venus athmosphere, second drilling of Venus surface, first ever live TV feed from Venus, first ever pictures of Halley`s comet core and detection of organics there
133) Vega-2 same as Vega-1
134) Soyuz T-13 first ever mission to save and repair abandoned spacestation
135) Mir an epic wonder of human genius
136) Kvant scientific module of Mir space station, included astronomic and astrophysical laboratories
137) Kvant-2 another huge 20 tonne scientific module for Mir space station
138) Kristall huge 20 tonne orbital factory module for Mir
139) Spektr huge 19 tonne scientific module for Mir optimised for orbital study of Earth
140) Priroda huge 19 orbital medical lab
141) Foton-1 orbital manufacturing satellite
142) Foton-2 orbital manufacturing satellite
143) Foton-3 orbital manufacturing satellite
144) Foton-4 orbital manufacturing satellite
145) Foton-5 orbital manufacturing satellite
146) Foton-6 orbital manufacturing satellite
147) Foton-7 orbital manufacturing satellite
148) Foton-8 orbital manufacturing satellite
149) Foton-9 orbital manufacturing satellite
150) Foton-10 orbital manufacturing satellite
151) Foton-11 orbital manufacturing satellite
152) Foton-12 orbital manufacturing satellite
153) Foton-M2 orbital manufacturing satellite
154) Foton-M3 orbital manufacturing satellite
155) Foton-M4 orbital manufacturing satellite
156) Kosmos-1818 6,6kW orbital nuclear reactor prototype
157) Skif first automatic 80 tonne battlestation with 100kW laser weapon (was not launched for political reasons)
158) Kosmos-1867 a 6,6kW orbital reactor with prototype 650 watt plasma engine SPD (now Russia has 30kW+ plasma engines)
159) Soyuz TM-4 delivered Glazar telescope for Kvant-1 module
160) Fobos-1 probe to Phobos, had radar, telescope and other scientific instrumentation
161) Fobos-2 same as Fobos-1
162) Soyuz TM-11 first space tourist
163) Series of Bion satellites, animal space labs
164) Soyuz TM-17 first collision with spacestation
165) Mir-2 (ISS) another epic wonder of human mind
166) MRM Rassvet research module for ISS
167) MRM Poisk research module for ISS
168) MLM Nauka huge 24 tonne spacelab, postponed, perhaps will be used with new Russian space station, not ISS
169) Soyuz-2 first escape pod for spacestation
170) Mars-express joint Roskosmos-ESA project, was launched by Russia, has Russian scietific instruments onboard
171) Venus-express Mars-express joint Roskosmos-ESA project, was launched by Russia, has Russian scietific instruments onboard
172) COROT French-ESA telescope launched by Russia
173) Buran - first automatic spaceflight of the orbiter, and first automatic landing.

This is just small list of space exploration advances made by Russia done after brief research. This is just tip of the
iceberg.
                      
                                       
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